semiconductors

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega European digital sovereignty: the EU had it, but did not retain it

Let’s go back to the 1990s. It was a time when the EU dominated the mobile phone industry (2G and 3G), had pre-eminent manufacturers of handsets –Nokia was a world leader–, built PCs and accounted for 30% of global manufacturing output of semiconductors, the essential silicon chips. In 2000, [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega Re-globalisation with hiccups

It was once thought that globalisation would integrate everything into complex and varied supply chains, thereby avoiding the need to stockpile parts and materials. It was the age of “just-in-time”, invented by Toyota. But with the pandemic and other catalysing factors, the situation has changed: we are no longer [...]

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