Russia

Which multilateralism for Cyber Norms?

Making a virtue out of necessity. In a crisis situation such as the current pandemic in which the United Nations Secretary-General called for a global ceasefire of armed conflicts as common responsibility, cyberspace –one of the greatest forgotten topics in global negotiations– appears to be at present –more than [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega Russian bots: plenty of interference, but little influence?

A host of studies report the growth of misinformation –from various sources– and fake news disseminated through social media and other means of transmission. But fewer focus on its real impact, something that could be less significant than supposed. Ultimately, Russian, Chinese and other bots may lead to a [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega General assured weakness: a world with less power

Global geopolitical rivalry persists, although under new guises, subsumed by the general COVID-19 crisis. But this very crisis means that all the great powers, and unions of powers like the EU, and international organisations –such as the largely absent UN (the WHO being an exception)– are now weaker than [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega Infodemic and mediademic

Amid the coronavirus crisis there is also an overload of information, something that the Director General of the World Health Organisation described at the beginning of February as an ‘infodemic’, a glut of misinformation deriving from various sources –there is never any shortage of troublemakers, whether motivated by their [...]

The ‘cyber’ priorities among the MENA States

In the context of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, access to cyberspace by states and societies poses risks to security across systems, services and infrastructure. Despite measurable progress in this regard, that is to say, in securing both undisturbed access to and use of the cyberspace, [...]

Aerial international military cooperation: trust and transparency?

From time to time, United States’ foreign policy is put under strain, but the produced noise is never heard beyond Washington, D.C. In October 2019, Eliot Engel, Democrat representative for New York and House Foreign Affairs Committee chair, sent a letter to Robert O’Brien, National Security Adviser, in which [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, 80 years on

The 23rd of August marks the 80th anniversary of what was perceived to be ignominious to much of the world: the non-aggression pact and the secret carving up of part of Europe between Hitler’s Germany and Stalin’s Soviet Union. Many saw and still see it as a purely tactical [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega Destabilising the Middle East by absence

It has never, at least since the fall of the Ottoman Empire, been stable. Instability is endemic to the Middle East, a region that suffers, as many have pointed out, from a surfeit of history, although new layers continue to be added. Relative stability has come from outside in [...]

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