industrial policy

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega The return of industrial policy: more European than Europeanist

A Spanish Minister said in the 1990s that ‘the best industrial policy is one that doesn’t exist’. Although Carlos Solchaga oversaw a courageous and tough bout of industrial restructuring, it is unlikely that such an affirmation would find much favour today amid European concerns about the Fourth Industrial Revolution [...]

The Energiewende and Germany’s Industrial Policy

The Energiewende is bringing about fundamental changes to Germany’s energy mix through short, medium and long term targets. Yet despite numerous studies, there is still a lack of clarity about the driving forces behind this energy transition. Reports of these drivers vary considerably, touching upon affordability, import dependency and [...]

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