fourth industrial revolution

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega The US vs. China: towards two opposing ecosystems

The relatively abrupt clash between China and the US could leave its mark on the rest of the world in years to come, reordering or rather disordering it even more, and dividing it into mutually incompatible ecosystems, owing to distinct technological –but also economic and political– standards. It is [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega The return of industrial policy: more European than Europeanist

A Spanish Minister said in the 1990s that ‘the best industrial policy is one that doesn’t exist’. Although Carlos Solchaga oversaw a courageous and tough bout of industrial restructuring, it is unlikely that such an affirmation would find much favour today amid European concerns about the Fourth Industrial Revolution [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega An EU fund for adapting to the technological revolution

Technological transformations of all kinds, but especially artificial intelligence (AI), so closely linked as it is to automation, raise the prospect of doing things that could never have been done before, and doing other things better, but could lead to –indeed are leading to– serious disruptions in the job [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega Globalisation 4.0: people-centred

Globalisation and the technological revolution go hand-in-hand, in a way that is now inseparable. But they both need to revolve around human beings, thereby becoming more inclusive, reconnecting the rhythm of the economy with the rhythm of society, or at least some societies. In other words, they need to [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega Trump and what caused him

The causes underlying Donald Trump’s arrival in the White House exactly one year ago are still subject to debate. But these causes, which are manifold and complex, have a bearing on his impact, on his politics, which have taken and indeed are taking their time to materialise. One example [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega 100 years after the Russian Revolution: central planning with big data?

At a time when the centenary of the Russian Revolution is being commemorated, it is worth asking what (even greater) degree of control and repression would the system have been able to attain had it had access to the instruments that the Internet and associated technologies now provide? In [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega A vertical moment

There are horizontal periods – indeed some people, Thomas Friedman among them, believed some years ago that the world was definitively flat– and periods in which verticality imposes itself again. In many ways, we are once again moving from the horizontal to the vertical with, for example, borders where [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega Global risks: are they really not economic?

‘Davos is a factory where conventional wisdom is manufactured’, according to David Rothkopf, Editor of Foreign Policy. But it frequently happens that this ‘conventional wisdom’ is simply wrong. Forming part of it are the forecasts of the World Economic Forum, which, nevertheless, are always of great interest. It is [...]

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