democracy

Which futures for which democracies

According to the latest edition of the Democracy Index by The Economist Intelligence Unit, globally there are more authoritarian and hybrid regimes than democratic countries: 91 States against 76. Within “democracy” category, 54 countries are flawed democracies, while only 22 States may be found at the “full democracy” label. [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega Election-free changes

In a matter of months, three major European countries have coincidentally seen changes of leadership and political direction without elections being held: the UK has witnessed Boris Johnson’s ascent with a promise of Brexit at any cost, by contrast to what was agreed with Brussels by his predecessor, Theresa [...]

Forty years of democratic Spain

Forty years ago this month, Spaniards overwhelmingly approved their new Constitution in a referendum which sealed the country’s transition to democracy. General Francisco Franco had died in 1975, after ruling Spain since 1939 following his victory in the three-year civil war. Be it economically with, for example, the creation [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega The demolition of Rodrik’s trilemma

In his book The Globalization Paradox, published in 2011, the Harvard Professor Dani Rodrik formulated his famous trilemma: it is impossible to attain economic hyperglobalisation, national sovereignty and democracy simultaneously, because only two of these things can be achieved at any one time. The sides of the triangle must [...]

Basque terrorist group ETA disbands after 60 years

It has been a long time coming, but finally the Basque separatist group ETA has dissolved itself, ending one of the longest terrorism campaigns in modern Europe with the loss of 854 lives, thousands injured and 79 kidnappings. The move, however, is far from healing the deep wounds among [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega The decline of the West, 1918-2018

This summer will mark the centenary of the appearance of the first volume of Oswald Spengler’s influential The Decline of the West (Der Untergang des Abendlandes), first published in 1918, when the First World War was in its death throes prior to the November armistice. One hundred years later [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega Psychographic advertising: the global battle to sway minds

It’s nothing new. Much indeed was known or suspected: specifically, that by using data from social media it is possible to send and personalise messages –true and otherwise– to reach many millions of individual users (who, even if pseudonymous, are real) or groups of them. Using Facebook data this [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega Democracies on the back foot

Democracies are on the defence. In its recent National Security Strategy, the Trump Administration –advocating ‘a return to a principled realism’– fails to mention promoting democracy and human rights beyond US borders, although it does refer to ‘our community of like-minded-democratic states’. The EU has its own democracy problems [...]

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