Security and Defence

Posts on security and defence

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega The retreat of the West

George W. Bush, Bush junior, entered the White House in January 2001 on a platform that emphasised a degree of isolationism, deriving from the unipolar episode the US was experiencing. The September 11 attacks that same year awoke him from the slumbers of the strategic snooze the US (and [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega From Afghanistan to China: the pathology of victory

On September 11 this year the longest war ever waged by the US will come to an end, in a phase involving both the US and NATO, following the withdrawal announced by Biden, 20 years after the al-Qaeda attack on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon. Lest there be [...]

Which multilateralism for Cyber Norms?

Making a virtue out of necessity. In a crisis situation such as the current pandemic in which the United Nations Secretary-General called for a global ceasefire of armed conflicts as common responsibility, cyberspace –one of the greatest forgotten topics in global negotiations– appears to be at present –more than [...]

The ‘cyber’ priorities among the MENA States

In the context of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, access to cyberspace by states and societies poses risks to security across systems, services and infrastructure. Despite measurable progress in this regard, that is to say, in securing both undisturbed access to and use of the cyberspace, [...]

Aerial international military cooperation: trust and transparency?

From time to time, United States’ foreign policy is put under strain, but the produced noise is never heard beyond Washington, D.C. In October 2019, Eliot Engel, Democrat representative for New York and House Foreign Affairs Committee chair, sent a letter to Robert O’Brien, National Security Adviser, in which [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega Ending Zero-Zero under China’s shadow

The signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF) by the US and the Soviet Union in 1987 marked the beginning of a new era and the end of the Cold War. It was the means whereby Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev renounced (zero on each side) an entire [...]

Global Spectator, by Andrés Ortega Space forces

The Trump Administration’s decision to create a new branch of the US military, the Space Force, the sixth of its armed forces, is more a matter of organisation than of content. But it is another policy announcement in line with America First, asserting the primacy of the US in [...]

Military outsourcing and the respect for International Humanitarian Law: the Montreux Document and ICoCA

Privatization of armed conflicts has spread over these two last decades and, with it, stakeholders involved. Armed forces’ externalization and military outsourcing in the aftermath of the so-called “overall fight against terrorism” led to a series of intergovernmental meetings which, with the support of a network of experts on [...]

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