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Senior Research Fellow at the Elcano Royal Institute. He is also an independent consultant and director of the Observatorio de las Ideas. He has been twice (1994-1996 and 2008-2011) Director of the Department of Analysis and Studies (Policy Unit) at the Prime Minister’s Office, and also worked as counselor at the Foreign Ministry. He has developed an extensive career in journalism as London and Brussels correspondent and columnist and editorial writer for El País. BA in Political Science (Complutense University of Madrid), and M.Sc. (Econ) in International Relations at the London School of Economics (1979). He is member of the ECFR council and the board of trustees of the Ortega-Marañón Foundation.